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Created by the Public Governance Directorate

This website was created by the OECD Observatory of Public Sector Innovation (OPSI), part of the OECD Public Governance Directorate (GOV).

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Anticipatory Innovation Resource (AIR)

With AIR, anticipation starts today

Anticipatory Innovation Resource


OPSI asked “futures” practitioners of all experience levels what answers you need to get started with innovative and value-shifting anticipation. Browse the questions and learn about some of the most effective approaches (tools and methods) in each area. Each question has a corresponding answer, coupled with feature cases and further information on the applied approaches.


OPSI features cases from organisations around the world to demonstrate how anticipation can deliver relevant, effective, and legitimate inputs to public sector innovation. Browse the cases to see lessons learned and how they can be applied to other policy settings. Each case is connected to the anticipation questions to help illustrate practical responses and contains links to the approaches (tools and methods) used.


More than just methods, approaches are the ways in which practitioners combined multiple tools and techniques to create effective anticipation work. Explore the OPSI Toolkit Navigator to learn more about the approaches that support the cases and questions and how to replicate them. To help address the questions, an accompanying approach is provided alongside practical cases.