SELFI (JUVENILE FILIAL SCHOOL / FORMAL EDUCATION SERVICES AT SPECIAL CLASS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTION FOR CHILDREN (LPKA) CLASS I PALEMBANG)
Sekolah Filial (SELFI) is a high quality formal education service for child prisoners in a special child development institution, Lembaga Pembinaan Khusus Anak (LPKA) Klas I in Palembang. This innovation is a solution to provide educational rights for all, including child prisoners in Palembang. This was a major problem in Palembang because of the high number (191) of cases reached in 2014, far above the national average of 95 cases. This innovation has been able to lead them to a better future.
Palembang has an area of 399.22 km2 with a population of 1,558,494 inhabitants (in 2014). A total of 293,777 inhabitants or 19% of the population of Palembang City were recorded as students. In 2014 there were 191 children involved in various forms of criminal cases. These children had been prosecuted and convicted so they became inmates of the Children's Penitentiary in Special Children Development Institution (LPKA) Class I Palembang. The number was far above the national average of 95 children separated in the other 33 Provinces, according to data sourced from the Directorate General of Correctional Database System (SDP) in April 2014.
Based on data from the Directorate General of Corrections in 2014, the implementation of non-formal education programs and quality education for child criminals in Indonesia had only reached 24% of the convicted cases, and in Palembang it had only reached 14%. This meant that the rights of these children’s education were still being neglected, so the attempts to foster and build character and restore the live of these children by returning their communities were being unsuccesful.
Seeing these conditions, by upholding the spirit of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) "No One Left Behind", meaning that no child is left behind in getting a quality education, the Palembang Government - through the Education Office in collaboration with the provincial Office of the Ministry of Law and Human Rights of the South Sumatra Province together with other stakeholders - initiated the implementation of SELFI/ Formal Education Services for Child Prisoners in LPKA Class I Palembang, with levels of education starting from elementary school, junior high school and senior high school.
Before the SELFI School was held in LPKA Class I Palembang, the child prisoners only attended non-formal education so that their right to get a proper education had not been fulfilled. At present child prisoners in LPKA Class I Palembang can take formal education in SELFI School following the program of the nearest state schools, namely elementary level to SDN 25 Palembang, junior level to SMPN 22 Palembang, SMAN level to SMAN 11 Palembang. Direct teaching staff are competent formal schoolteachers. Besides having a decent class, it is also equipped with library facilities, computer practice rooms, and various extracurricular activities such as: scouts, drum band, martial arts, and character building activities as well as spirituality.
This initiative aims to provide equal opportunities for every child, including child Convicts in LPKA Class I Palembang to get a quality formal education. So, it has an impact on improving the Human Development Index (HDI) of Palembang City, especially in education aspects show the rising graph indicating an increase in the quality of education in Palembang City.
At present the fili SELFI al school in LPKA Class I Palembang has succeeded in graduating students, of which there are graduates who have continued at the next level of education, some have even been accepted to work in various sectors both government and private, using diplomas obtained from the SELFI schools. In addition, there are students who can excel in various competitions carried out by various organizations, both locally and nationally.
This initiative is carried out based on the implementation manual of the management and delivery of special service education in LPKA, including:
1. Identification and Assessment of prospective students
2. Education Management Involving: 1) Education Agency; 2) LPKA; 3) Main School; 4) Companion Teacher; and 5) Society.
3. Student Acceptance Process
4. Curriculum and Teaching Materials
5. Implementation of Learning
6. Grading and Graduation
7. Educators and Educational Personnel
8. Educational Infrastructure
9. Institutional Cooperation
10. Monitoring and Evaluation
The Directorate General of Corrections (Director General PASs) of the Ministry of Law and Human Rights of the Republic of Indonesia has made this innovation a pilot program in the effort to better organize education in LPKA throughout Indonesia. SELFI was then included in the strategic plan of the Directorate General of National Strategy for 2020-2024 discussed on October 24 2019 attended by all Heads of LPKA in Indonesia and Heads of Provincial/ Regency/ City Education Offices in Indonesia. The Head of the Palembang City Education Agency was the guest speaker in the event.
This innovation also inspired the formation of SELFI Schools for street children and school Dropouts in Palembang launched on September 12, 2019 in order to provide equitable, quality and affordable education services for the whole community, considering the dropout rate in Palembang reached 1,278 cases (Education statistics data center 2018).
What Makes Your Project Innovative?
SELFI is a formal education service for child prisoners in Palembang Class I LPKA. It has become very successful because it builds collaboration among the Palembang Education Office, Palembang Class I LPKA and related stakeholders. So, an active, creative and innovative teaching and learning process is carried out, including intracurricular, cocurricular and extracurricular activities that can shape the attitudes, knowledge and skills of students.
In the end it can produce the quality graduates ready to compete with other students in general, which is evidenced by the presence of SELFI students who excel at regional and national levels as well as graduates who have studied at Universit and become government employees, private company employees, entrepreneurs and even religious teachers.
This innovation has become a pilot and was awarded as the best education provider in LPKA in Indonesia, to fulfill the right to education that is inclusive for all children.
What is the current status of your innovation?
The number of child prisoners in Palembang is quite high, reaching 191 cases far above the national average of 95 cases (SDP 2014); this condition raises new problems for them, namely not being able to access formal education because of having to drop out of school. Non-formal education programs organized by LPKA had been very low in interest and the learning process was not optimal.
SELFI school in LPKA Class I Palembang has succeeded in encouraging the participation of child prisoners' learning from only 14% attending non-formal education, to 100% having attended formal education, and reducing criminal behavior in the same children after being released from the prison.
This innovation ensures an inclusive, quality and equitable education where all children have equal access and opportunities to obtain primary, secondary to tertiary level education. In addition to ensuring equal access for all to gain skills, entrepreneurship opportunities, and obtain meaningful work.
Collaborations & Partnerships
Palembang LPKA Class I SELFI School is managed by involving partners namely;
1. Palembang City Education Agency
2. Child Special Development Institution (LPKA) Palembang Class I
3. Main School
5. Student Parent
6. Community Element/ Non-Governmental Organization
The elements are directly involved in implementing education in LPKA Class I Palembang, helping determine the concept, relevant educational pattern, creating partnership network, and joint commitment among stakeholders.
Users, Stakeholders & Beneficiaries
This innovation has made significant changes to the lives of child prisoners in LPKA Class I Palembang through formal education, skills training and character building during the detention period.
Child Prisoner parents and family can accept and treat them well and naturally because they have become better people.
Child prisoner's negative stigma during the community is reduced because of seeing they can rise, and even excel in competing with children outside LPKA.
Results, Outcomes & Impacts
a. The increase of Palembang City Human Development Index (HDI) from 77.02 in 2014 to 77.89 in 2018. From an educational aspect the average length of school increased from 10.23 in 2014 to 10.37 in 2018 (BPS 2019).
b. Decreasing number of child convicts in LPKA Class I Palembang, in 2014 from 191 children to 84 children in 2018, because this innovation has already provided character education and life skill to them as a capital after leaving LPKA. (SDP 2018).
c. Children completed formal education were 112 from 191 children in LPKA, with range of 58% continuing the next level of education, working in the government sector (4.5%) and private sector (9.8%), self-employed (7.2%), not working (8.9%), unknown (11.6%) (PKBI Data 2019).
d. Currently the SELFI are being developed not only for the children in LPKA but also for street children and dropout student in Palembang City had been started September 12, 2019, where the number of school dropouts reaches 1,278 cases (PDSP 2018).
Challenges and Failures
Child convicts as prospective students were often found to not have previous educational history documents, such as report cards, diplomas and identification, as a condition for determining the level of education to be followed. The problem was resolved by getting these documents from the family, school of origin or the regional education office. This was carried out in collaboration with a supporting NGO, namely The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (PKBI) in South Sumatra Region.
In addition, there were cases of low attention of parents or families towards children in LPKA Class I Palembang, even though they still really needed joint attention, especially parents. To overcome this problem, Children of Hope Family Forum is formed as a forum for togetherness among parents, teachers and LPKA officials in giving attention and guidance to child prisoners in LPKA Class I Palembang.
Conditions for Success
This innovation has been equipped with various facilities such as quality classrooms, libraries, computer rooms, and facilities for extracurricular activities.
For innovation sustainability, the Palembang Mayor made a regulation (Number 25 / 2016) concerning SELFI Schools for Child convicts in LPKA Class I Palembang is issued.
The main funding is from Palembang Education Office Budget and LPKA Class I Palembang supported by related parties such as Governor of South Sumatra, the Ministry of Education and Culture, BUMN through Cooperate Social Responsibility programs, South Sumatra Regional Library and Palembang Training Foundation.
The initiative is supported by competent and professional human resources consisting of teachers, academics, business and industry, education offices, health services, population and civil registration services, ministries of religion, social services, and LPKA Class I Palembang.
By mobilizing all potential each stakeholder has, achieving goals is easier.
Many people representing interested organizations, visited to see, study, and conduct research, both from within the country and abroad, including: students/academics/social activists/organizations/institutions/agencies in Indonesia. These included volunteers from Australia, France, Canada, Spain, Chile and Singapore; Philippines; The Asia Foundation; the Danish Ambassador; and academics from Malaysia.
The LPKA education services innovation has been replicated by several cities in Indonesia, including: LPKA Bandung, LPKA Bengkulu, LPKA Kendari, LPKA Tangerang, LPKA Blitar and Bukit Tinggi .
This innovation will be developed in all LPKA in Indonesia. The statement of replication was delivered by the Director General of Corrections of The Indonesian Ministry of Law and Human Rights on October 24, 2019 during the opening of the Director General PAS Strategic Planning in 2020-2024 as an effort to fulfill the education rights of child prisoners in LPKA.
Through this innovation there are several lessons learned, including:
- Children in LPKA are not as bad as the stigma summoned up by society. This innovation fosters better behavior and improves the character of the child prisoners. Upon completion of their sentence, they are able to rejoin their families and communities to become better, productive citizens.
- This program shows that cross-sector collaboration works well, synergistically and comprehensively. Child prisoners are meeting expectations for achieving a bright future.
- The quality of students in LPKA, is not inferior to students who are outside. They can even work and excel at the local or national level. We have examples of program graduates winning the Palembang karate competition, a winner of the poetry competition, and the national short story writer contest.
- This initiative teaches us that quality education must be made available in any condition, anywhere and anytime because it is the right of all children.
- In the drafting of the Director General of Ministry of Law and Human Rights Strategic Plan Year 2020-2024 regarding efforts to fulfill the rights of children in LPKA, it has been recommended to the Ministry of Law and Human Rights of the Republic of Indonesia and the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia to determine the mechanism, technical and timing of the education implementation in LPKA throughout Indonesia on a massive scale.
In program sustainability framework and maintaining the existence of SELFI Schools in LPKA Class I Palembang and in the effort to develop innovation, the Palembang City Education Office designed various activities as follows:
1. Proposing the Transfer of Child Prisoners in Penitentiaries/ Prisoners / Detention Centers in the Regency/ City of South Sumatra to LPKA Class I Palembang in order to be able to attend school.
2. The concept of SELFI in LPKA Class I Palembang is included in the Strategic Planning of Director General PAS of the Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Law and Human Rights in 2020-2024 relating to efforts to fulfill the education rights of child prisoners and as implementation model.
3. This innovation inspired the development of SELFI for Street Children and School Dropouts in Palembang, which was launched on September 12, 2019 in an effort to address the high dropout rates in Palembang reaching 1,278 cases (PDSP 2018).