MAGMA Indonesia (Multiplatform Application for Geohazard Mitigation and Assessment in Indonesia)
MAGMA Indonesia is an system that streamlines the process of geological hazard mitigation. It raises the bar on the standard of data monitoring and management for Indonesian government agencies. MAGMA digitizes relevant geological data into integrated databases, making them easier to analyze and use. Frequent readings and analytics can now be made ready in an almost-real-time manner. As a public service, MAGMA makes geological hazard mitigation and assessment available for free, anytime and anywhere accessible.
It provides services that may save lives and prevent or mitigate social and economic losses in Indonesia.
Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago, consisting of more than 17,000 islands inhabited by 262 millions people. Situated at the crossroads of the three major tectonic plates, namely the Indo-Australia, the Eurasia, and the Pacific-Philippine Sea plates, Indonesia is frequently exposed to geological hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides as well as volcanic eruptions. Indonesia is one of countries that suffers the most fatalities caused by geological hazards.
The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation is an Indonesian national government institute within the Geological Agency of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. Among its responsibilities, the institute mitigates risk caused by geological hazards by disseminating reliable information in a timely manner. At the start of 2015 several staff members at the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigationinitiated an innovative system to make the dissemination simpler, faster, cheaper, yet more reliable and widely accessible.
Hence, MAGMA Indonesia was born. It has been developed to streamline the process of geological hazard mitigation. It raises the bar on the standard of data monitoring and management for Indonesian government agencies. MAGMA digitizes relevant geological data into integrated databases, making them easier to analyze and use. Frequent readings and analytics can now be made ready in an almost-real-time manner. As a public service, MAGMA makes geological hazard mitigation and assessment available for free, anytime and anywhere accessible.
Drawing insights from online public surveys on the type of information most helpful to reduce the risks associated to a disaster and the tools preferred by the majority of potential users (Early Warning System), MAGMA deploys in platforms that are most suited to the users’ situation (Web and Android applications). This shows that local residents were involved in the early development of MAGMA Indonesia. MAGMA Indonesia has the following advantageous characteristics.
1) It is cheap, both in its development and deployment. Leveraging on open-source systems and already widely available computing platforms, the total cost can be kept low.
2) The overall system is robust and very reliable. Many institutions, both local and international, have benefited from MAGMA’s capabilities and have tested it extensively. Most notably, MAGMA has been of tremendous use for the aviation industry, providing near real-time data that can be used to enhance the security of flights that traverse the Indonesian sky.
3) It is very versatile, requiring minimum computing resources in both hardware and software. Further modification and calibration to suit more specific situation can be easily done.
4) It provides services that save lives and prevent or mitigate social and economic losses.
What Makes Your Project Innovative?
Prior to the existing of MAGMA Indonesia, all information and recommendations related to geological hazards were sent hierarchically by the government through mail, electronic media, and facsimile to local government then to local residents. Indonesia did not have an integrated system for geological hazard mitigation. There was no single structured data source that can be easily accessed.
In addition, the majority of residents did not recognize the hazard potential surrounding them. Conducting the socialization and education for the whole resident was impossible due to the limited number of experts and the vastness of Indonesian region. After the establishment of MAGMA Indonesia, accurate disaster information can now be easily accessed in almost real time, anytime, and almost from anywhere.
MAGMA is presented in a single window with full of information that can be accessed via an Android application named MAGMA Indonesia or via website. MAGMA provides services that save lives and prevent or mitigate social and economic losses. The features offered by MAGMA includes:
1. Updated Disaster Information Notification
2. Volcanic Activity Information
3. Volcanic Ash Information
4. Soil Movement/Landslide Activity Information
5. Earthquake Activity Information
6. Disaster Prone Areas Map
7. Press Release
8. Community Reporting System
With the existence of MAGMA Indonesia, Indonesia finally has an integrated geological hazards mitigation system and a reliable geological information system. The data is presented with an easy-to-understand sentences for public comprehension. In addition, MAGMA provides an early warning system for aviation safety during a volcanic eruption called VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation). VONA extends information of volcanic ash to aviation industry. The VONA report consists of Eruption Time, Eruption Altitude, Ash Color and the Volcanic Ash spreading direction. The information is delivered in near-real time to all stakeholders both nationally and internationally.
What is the current status of your innovation?
MAGMA Indonesia has now been utilized by stakeholders both nationally and internationally. National Stakeholders include Indonesian residents, Local Governments, Ministry of Transport, AirNav Indonesia, National Disaster Management Agency, Airport Authority. The international Stakeholders include VAAC Darwin (Australia), VAAC Tokyo, International Air Transport Association (IATA), and The Hong Kong Government.
The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) gives a report on how Indonesia, utilizing MAGMA, is serious in handling the volcanic disaster threat both in the air and on the ground. A development of system integration has been requested by many parties which include BPNB, IATA, and Indonesian Ministry of Health.
The MAGMA Indonesia website has been visited by 28,325 Unique Visitors from around the world. Meanwhile, The Magma Indonesia app has been downloaded 6,219 times (per 18 August 2017).
The Top 10 visitors by country:
1. Indonesia (22,150)
2. USA (4,537)
3. Australia (345) 4. Japan (293)
5. The Philippines (287)
6. Singapore (217)
7. The Netherlands (128)
8. UK (112)
9. Malaysia (103)
10. France (67)
Since the launching time, MAGMA Indonesia has had around 400,000 data and still growing.
1. January 2015, MAGMA Indonesia was first initiated by Dr. Devy Kamil Syahbana. During this step, an initial database design that would be used by MAGMA was made. The planning of platform, user interface, and system framework was also made in this step.
2. April 2015, the development of android app prototype for volcanic activity reporting. The MAGMA website was also initiated in this month.
3. June 2015, The MAGMA app for web and Android was successfully made and closed beta testing was conducted involving several people.
4. August 2015 - January 2016, the MAGMA system started to work fully but was still limited for the usage by the internal office. The activity in this month was focused for data updating. The report of disaster activity was able to be delivered via the MAGMA application.
5. March 2016, MAGMA for web had been made and displayed an interactive map of geological disaster. MAGMA for web was targeted for the usage of citizens or stakeholders.
6. April 2016, MAGMA-VONA had been built and had been released to the public. It was first used for a simulation of a volcanic eruption in Ngurah Rai Airport, Bali.
7. July 2016, MAGMA Indonesia app for the public was published at Play Store for the first time.
8. August 2016, MAGMA kept on being developed using input from various parties.
9. October 2016, MAGMA-SIGERTAN (Magma App for landslide) was made to help report the response of soil movement/landslide.
10. November 2016, MAGMA Indonesia was brought on a demo at the 9th Cities on Volcano event in Chile on 20-25 November 2016.
11. December 2016, MAGMACRS (Community Reporting System) based on web and Android to improve people participation in reporting geological disaster activity.
12. January 2017, MAGMA-PRESS as a part of MAGMA app which contains geological disaster information.
13. February 2017 up to now, MAGMA keeps on being developed and opens the chance for collaboration with various parties for the improvement of geological disaster mitigation.
Collaborations & Partnerships
1. The Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) gives advice about what kind of volcanic ashes information that is needed for modeling the estimation of volcanic ash spreading in the air (ash forecasting).
2. The Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BPNB) uses MAGMA for monitoring disaster activities and uses MAGMA as a media for socializing with the residents. Collaborating with BPNB, the data of MAGMA can also be used in disaster application "Inasafe".
3. The local governments use the geological disaster recommendation from MAGMA for urban and government planning.
4. The Indonesian Ministry of Transport gives input for the development of MAGMA-VONA.
5. VAAC Darwin and TOKYO use the VONA data as an initial parameter in making volcanic ash modeling in the air.
Users, Stakeholders & Beneficiaries
In the development stages of MAGMA, the citizens and stakeholders participated in accordance with their respective roles in their organizations. MAGMA used their inputs to be developed based on their respective needs because the main purpose of MAGMA is from the people and for the people. The local governments, BPNB, and BMKG participated in socializing MAGMA in their disaster socialization programs. In addition to that, some agencies like the Ministry of Transport facilitated MAGMA in simulating the VONA app in the Ngurah Rai Airport Bali by inviting all aviation stakeholders. This is very significant for the development of MAGMA. Because of this direct simulation, MAGMA can understand the importance of VONA for the safety of aviation during a volcanic eruption. Meanwhile, the collaborations between agencies in the disaster fields are also formed.
Results, Outcomes & Impacts
MAGMA Indonesia is designed, made, and developed independently to be used widely by Indonesians and international alike. Furthermore, MAGMA also provides an extensive knowledge relating to the information of geological disaster for the citizens in the form of interactive maps which, in turn, makes Indonesian society become more aware of disasters.
From the government view, the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation has been successful in improving disaster mitigation in Indonesia by persuading the citizens to participate in reporting geological disasters occurring in their local area. In addition to ground-based mitigation, the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation also participates in sky-based mitigation. MAGMA Indonesia is successful changing the Indonesian society culture in viewing the importance of understanding geological disaster threat in their local area.
Furthermore, MAGMA also provides convenience for the residents in their effort to find recommendations of the geological disaster threat by providing The Disaster Prone Area Map (KRB). From the technological view, MAGMA is an initial step for the Indonesian people in making an early warning system and is an application that contains all geological disaster information. The updated information and news about the newest disasters can be accessed easily and in real time. MAGMA shows a serious attempt by the government in improving disaster mitigation in Indonesia and also shows the existence of government among its people. To support the development, the government also encourages the citizens and all parties to give critics and recommendations. All critics and recommendations can be sent via the Android app, Google Play feedback, and email. These feedbacks that are received show how big is people's enthusiasm and supports for MAGMA to keep on being a world class application. From the internal view, the appreciation and supports that the citizens give to MAGMA can motivate the staffs to work better in providing service for the Indonesian people.
Challenges and Failures
The limitation of the programmers makes the development of MAGMA Indonesia is done in urgent-priority basis. Cellular network availability in some remote areas in Indonesia are still difficult, thus MAGMA may be difficult to be accessed in some areas. The provision of SMS Gateway as a disaster notification can be used as an alternative. Publication through mass and social media could still be optimized. The role of public relation’s officers is important, MAGMA is now progressively recognized by Indonesian people. MAGMA Indonesia was a trending topic in Twitter (Indonesia region) for two days (26-27 July 2017). Technical bugs or errors in the application may be found on some occasions. The monitoring of server log files can be used to overcome the problems.
Conditions for Success
Institution leader’s support and commitment in the form of policy is very important to guarantee the sustainability of the system. Drawing insights from online public surveys on the type of information most helpful to reduce the risks associated to a disaster and the tools preferred by the majority of potential users, MAGMA deploys in platforms that are most suited to the users’ situation. Leveraging on open-source systems and already widely available computing platforms, the total cost can be kept low. The collaboration with various parties is very important in establishing a successful development and especially the participation of citizens.
For governments with similar problems, it is very easy to replicate the system. This is possible because MAGMA is an open source system, all codes can be accessed via GitHub (an open source code sharing). The technical guide and user interface guide are also provided. If needed, the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation as the developer can help in replicating the system. Financially, MAGMA can be considered as very affordable. Because in doing replication, providing a server and enough bandwidth is the only requirement to make the system work. The software can be downloaded directly from Github for free.
As a government institution possesses authorities and responsibilities in the disaster mitigation fields, MAGMA manifests an example of how making a learning and evolving system needs hard works and collaborations with various parties including supports from the citizens. The desire to save lives and prevent or mitigate social and economic losses caused by geological disasters encourages us (the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation) to develop a better geological disaster mitigation system.